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Salah

Ṣalāh or Ṣalāt (Arabic: صلاة‎; pl. ṣalawāt) is the practice of formal prayer in Islam. Its supreme importance for Muslims is indicated by its status as one of the Five Pillars of Sunni Islam. Salah is a ritual prayer, having prescribed conditions, a prescribed procedure, and prescribed times.

Performing salah is obligatory for all adult Muslims, with a few dispensations for those for whom it would be difficult. To perform valid salah, Muslims must be in a state of ritual purity, which is mainly achieved by ritual ablution according to prescribed procedures. The place of prayer should be clean. In a few cases where blood is leaving the body, salah is forbidden until a later time.

Salah consists of the repetition of two or more units of a prescribed sequence of actions and words. One complete sequence is known as a raka’ah (pl. raka’āt). The number of obligatory (fard) raka’āt varies according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational prayers). The minimal, obligatory raka’at may be supplemented with acts which are optional but are considered meritorious. There are also dispensations from some or all of the prescribed actions for those who are physically unable to complete them. The prescribed words of the prayer remain obligatory.

For Sunnis, salah is prescribed at five periods of the day as part of tradition, which are measured according to the movement of the sun. These are: near dawn (fajr), just after the sun’s noon (dhuhr), in the afternoon (asr), just after sunset (maghrib) and around nightfall (isha’a).

サラート(礼拝、サラー、アラビア語: صلاة‎ ṣalāt, 複数形 صلوات ṣalawāt, 古典アラビア語: صلوة ṣalawah)とは、カアバ神殿の方角へ向かって祈ることで、イスラム教の五行のひとつである。ペルシア語、ベンガル語、ウルドゥー語、トルコ語、南スラヴ諸語の一部では、ペルシャ語による意訳ナマーズ(نماز)に基づいた言葉で呼ばれる(ベンガル文字: নামাজ, ラテン文字: namaz, キリル文字: намаз)。

礼拝の方法には一定の決まりがある。ふだんは家庭などで個人で行ってもいいが、イスラムの祝日である金曜日の礼拝のうち少なくとも1回はモスクに集まってみなで行うことが奨励される。礼拝が始まる時間はムアッジンと呼ばれる人によって告げられるが、これをアザーンという。昔はモスクの尖塔(ミナレット)に上りその上からアザーンが行われたが、現在はスピーカーが取り付けられている。

礼拝は1日5回行う。各礼拝は以下のようになっており、具体的な時間はその場所での日の出と日没の時間によって変わるため場所と季節の影響により時間が細かく変化する、現代では地域ごとの正確な礼拝時間表が数日から一日刻みで精密に作られており、インターネットでも検索することが出来るようになっている。

日の出の1時間以上前には起きて礼拝の準備をしなければならないため、正確に守ろうとするとムスリムは大変に早起きになる、日本の場合では日の出が早い8月ごろの場合には礼拝の時間は4時前となり、日の出が遅い冬場の12月から1月でも5時半前後になる。

サラート

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Hajj/ハッジ

The Hajj (Arabic: حج‎ Ḥajj) is the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is currently the largest annual pilgrimage in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah in the Arabic language).

The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th and last month of the Islamic calendar. Because the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, eleven days shorter than the Gregorian calendar used in the Western world, the Gregorian date of the Hajj changes from year to year. Ihram is the name given to the special state in which Muslims live whilst on the pilgrimage.

The Hajj is associated with the life of Islamic prophet Muhammad(S:) from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Abraham (Ibrahim)(A:). Pilgrims join processions of hundreds of thousands of people, who simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals: Each person walks counter-clockwise seven times about the Kaaba, the cube-shaped building which acts as the Muslim direction of prayer, runs back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, drinks from the Zamzam Well, goes to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, and throws stones in a ritual Stoning of the Devil. The pilgrims then shave their heads, perform a ritual of animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three day global festival of Eid al-Adha.

ハッジ(アラビア語:حجّ‎ ḥajj, トルコ語 hac)とは、イスラーム世界における、メッカ(マッカ)への巡礼の事を指す。五行の1つ。ヒジュラ暦第十二月であるズー=ル=ヒッジャ月(巡礼月)の8日から10日の時期を中心にメッカとその周辺地域で行われる一連の諸儀礼から構成される。特にズー=ル=ヒッジャ月以外でのメッカ巡礼を指すウムラ(小巡礼、en:Umrah)と区別して「大巡礼」とも呼ばれる。

すべてのムスリム(イスラーム教徒)にとって、少なくとも人生のうちに1回は、メッカ巡礼が義務付けられている。ただし、すべてのムスリムに課せられる他の四行(信仰告白(シャハーダ)、礼拝(サラー)、喜捨(ザカート)、断食(サウム))と異なり、巡礼を実行出来る体力や財力のある者のみが行えば良いものとされている。巡礼期間中にハッジを済ませたものはハーッジュ حاجّ‎ ḥājj(女性形はハーッジャ حاجّة‎ ḥājja)、あるいはハーッジー حاجّي‎ ḥājjī という尊称を得て、ムスリムの社会で尊敬を受ける。

サウジアラビア政府は、ズー=ル=ヒッジャ(巡礼月、イスラーム暦の第12月)の間に巡礼を目的とする外国人に特別査証を発給している。また、メッカは、イスラーム教徒以外の人間が立ち入ることは禁じられていて、市内全域がイスラーム教の聖地である。

From wiki ハッジ

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To its aficionados, bullfighting is an art. Some would say a dying art, and Spain’s northeast region of Catalonia hammered another nail into the coffin in July 2010, when the regional parliament voted to ban it from 2012.

Hemingway called it “death in the afternoon” and fight-goers think of it as la fiesta (a word that can mean feast, party or celebration). Barcelona was once the only city in Spain to boast three bullrings, but by 1977 they were down to one – indeed the only bullfighting ring in Catalonia.

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Egypt’s top archaeologist shows off new tomb



CAIRO — Egypt’s top archaeologist showed off the newly discovered tomb of a pharaonic priest on Tuesday, a find he said could point the way to a new necropolis to be excavated near the famed Giza pyramids.

Standing inside the 4,300-year-old structure, Zahi Hawass said hieroglyphics on the tomb’s walls indicate it belonged to Rudj-ka, a priest inspector in the mortuary cult of the pharaoh Khafre, who built the second largest of Giza’s pyramids.

The tomb — about the size of a train car — was adorned with paintings, some of them still vivid. Images on one wall depict a man standing on a boat, spearing fish. Nearby are lotus flowers and different types of birds standing or in flight.

A series of false doors line the opposite wall. A painting above one shows two figures seated opposite each other at an offering table.

The priest, buried with his family, would have supervised those presenting sacrifices to the pharaoh, Hawass said.

“It is very clear that this man was carrying out a very important role,” Hawass said, based on the tomb’s decoration.

The tomb dates to the 5th Dynasty, 2465-2323 B.C. The pharaoh Khafre died earlier, around 2494 B.C., but pharaohs were often worshipped after death, Hawass said.

The tomb remains in good condition, Hawass added, though it had been previously broken into and looted, perhaps in the 19th century.

Archaeologists discovered it about a month ago and have been excavating it since.

Hawass said it would not be open to the public, though some visitors could get permits to see it.

Standing atop a dune near the tomb’s entrance, Hawass said it was the first tomb discovered to the west of Khafre’s pyramid and could lead to more discoveries nearby.

“The sand of Egypt hides lots of secrets,” he said.

By : http://www.toledoblade.com/article/20101019/NEWS14/101019528/-1/RSS

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Google tests driverless car

The experiment, which was carried out in San Francisco, was almost incident-free. The sole mishap was when the driverless car was bumped from behind by another vehicle at a traffic light.

It is the latest development in trying to design accidents out of cars. Already many have sophisticated assisted parking systems and an array of other technology aimed at preventing collisions.

However the Google car – in reality a kitted out Toyota Prius – went a step further.

Although a driver was present to take control should the need arise, the car was left to drive itself with the help of video cameras mounted on the roof, radar sensors and a laser finder capable of detecting other traffic.

The routes were agreed in advance with the police and were first mapped out by by a driver.

According to Sebastian Thrun, a software engineer behind the project, a number of cars have taken part in the trials which have covered 140,000 miles.

The cars have successfully negotiated San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge as well as other parts of the city.

According to the World Health Organisation 1.2 million people are killed on the roads across the globe every year and the trials are intended to promote safety by removing some of the human error involved in driving.

By http://www.telegraph.co.uk/motoring/news/8054149/Google-tests-driverless-car.html

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VSS Enterprise completes test flight

British billionaire Richard Branson’s dream of space travel that thousands of people can afford took a leap toward reality with the maiden flight of the world’s first commercial spacecraft over California’s Mojave Desert.

Branson’s company Virgin Galactic announced Monday that the VSS Enterprise had successfully completed what it called a captive carry flight attached to a carrier plane.

The spacecraft’s developer called it a “momentous day.”

“The captive carry flight signifies the start of what we believe will be extremely exciting and successful spaceship flight test program,” said Burt Rutan, founder of Scaled Composites, which built the spacecraft.

By CNN

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HYPERNOVAE

One possible explanation for the origin of Gamma ray bursts is that they are the result of extremely large explosions, or a ‘hypernova’.

Hypernovae are the death throes of stars up to 20 times larger than our own Sun. Such explosions emit, for just a few seconds, more radiation than everything else in the Universe combined.

Yet despite their destructive power, hypernovae may also be responsible for the creation of stellar nurseries, where new stars (or protostars) are born.

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Holly Qur’an:: クルアーン

The Holly Qur’an is the religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur’an to be the verbal divine guidance and moral direction for mankind. Muslims also consider the original Arabic verbal text to be the final revelation of Allah.

クルアーン(قرآن qur’ān)あるいはコーランとは、イスラーム教(イスラーム)の聖典である。イスラームの信仰では、唯一不二の神様(アッラーフ)から最後の預言者に任命されたムハンマドに対して下された啓示と位置付けられている。ムハンマドの死後にまとめられた現在の形は全てで114章からなる。「読まれるもの」を意味する。(アラビア語では定冠詞が伴い「アル=クルアーン」と呼ばれる。)

欧米では古くから Coran あるいは Koran と呼ばれており、日本でも長らくそのカタカナ化した形である「コーラン」という名前で呼ばれてきた。

クルアーンwiki

日本語のアル=クルアーン、ここから聞えます
日本語のアル=クルアーン

Islam holds that the Qur’an was revealed from Allah to Muhammad(s.) orally through the angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) over a period of approximately twenty-three years, beginning in 610 CE, when he was forty, and concluding in 632 CE, the year of his death. Muslims further believe that the Qur’an was memorized, recited and written down by Muhammad’s(s.) companions after every revelation dictated by Muhammad(s.). Most of Muhammad’s(s.) companions—tens of thousands—learned the Qur’an by heart, repeatedly recited in front of Muhammad(s.) for his approval or the approval of other Sahaba Muhammad(s.) had approved. The companions also compiled it in written form while Muhammad(s.) was alive.

Muslims regard the Qur’an as the main miracle of Muhammad(s.), as proof of his prophethood, and as the culmination of a series of divine messages. These started, according to Islamic belief, with the messages revealed to Adam, regarded in Islam as the first prophet, and continued with the Suhuf Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham), the Tawrat (Torah or Pentateuch) of Moses, the Zabur (Tehillim or Book of Psalms) of David, and the Injil (Gospel) of Jesus. The Qur’an describes itself as a book of guidance, sometimes offering detailed accounts of specific historical events, and often emphasizing the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.

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CHRISTIAN SCIENTIST CONFIRM AL- QURAN IS TRUE

Holly Quran is form its have a lots of proof, there are about 1000 of vears in Quran about science. And till now about 600 vears are become in fact of science. Lots of scientist become Muslim when they saw, what ever Quran says about 1400yers ago that become truth in modern science.

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National Geographic Confirms Quranic Science

National Geographic confirms the Truth passed on from generation to generation for over 1400 years, that is the Holy Qur’an. This clip talks about how the earth got its water. While the Holy Qur’an already mentioned how some rock contains rivers, recent science is only uncovering the Truth that has been revealed over 14 centuries ago. This video serves as a Sign for the Believers, thus it may strengthen their faith in Allah, while the Disbelievers will continue rejecting every Sign brought forth to them… until they see the Fire in front of them face to face. But how will regrets profit them then?

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